Martin Luther, Replacement Theology graph, San Diego shooter | Photos: screenshotsSupersessionism and replacement theology not only make anti-Semitism possible, they make it acceptable. The reality is that these same beliefs have been the foundation of Christian Jew-hatred for almost two thousand years and are now used by some Christians to deny Israel the right to exist.


In the wake of the second deadly attack in six months on American Jews in their houses of worship on Shabbat, David French published an article in National Review titled, Dealing with the Shock of an Evangelical Terrorist. The piece demonstrates an honest attempt to grapple with the fact that a person affiliated with the same Christian denomination of which he, French, is a member, could enter Chabad of Poway near San Diego, CA on the last day of Passover and kill one person while wounding three others.

In his article, French made an understandable attempt to separate the beliefs and actions of the Poway shooter from the supersessionist theological position of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church (OPC). Unfortunately, however, the result was an ill-informed defense of his opinion that the supersessionist beliefs of the OPC, or “any church’s adherence to so-called ‘replacement theology,’” do not make anti-Semitism acceptable in any way.

French seems to want to believe that the doctrines of his denomination had no relationship to the actions of the shooter. However, history and current events demonstrate that supersessionism/replacement theology – the belief that Christians and the Church have superseded or replaced Jews and Israel in the purposes of God – has, does, and will continue to justify anti-Semitism and violence against the Jewish people.

Therefore, it does not come as a surprise, to those who know Church history, that a person who grew up exposed to the same doctrines that have inspired and justified Christian anti-Semitism for centuries, could hold blatant anti-Semitic beliefs, demonstrated through word and deed.

The Poway shooter, a member of one of the most respected families of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church in Escondido, CA, published an eight-page manifesto that outlined his hatred of the Jewish people. Commenting online after the shooting, he said, “I feel no remorse. I only wish I killed more. I am honored to be the one to send these vile anti-humans into the pit of fire where they shall remain for eternity.” While it is certainly possible he could have developed these beliefs outside of the church, it is safe to say that the doctrines of the church with which he was affiliated provided fertile ground for such hate to grow.

The assumption that French’s effort to separate the beliefs and actions of the shooter from the anti-Semitism that results from supersessionism/replacement theology is the result of being ill-informed – rather than from malicious intent – is based on his statement that he disagrees with the doctrine of supersessionism, as well as other things he has written about Israel. In fact, he has written articles that show an in-depth understanding of critical issues in relation to Israel.

In an article titled, “The Real Reasons American Evangelicals Support Israel,” French presents a thoughtful explanation of Evangelical support for the Jewish State as a combination of beliefs, experience, basic morality, the pernicious persistence of anti-Semitism, and Christian biblical interpretation. And in an article published the day after Hamas shot approximately 700 rockets at Israel in a two-day period in early May, French made a compelling case that demonstrates how the law of war permits Israel to destroy Hamas, and exposes the double standards applied to the IDF as the anti-Semitism that it is.

So, there is no doubt as to how French views Israel in general.

However, in contrast to the comprehension he demonstrates in these other two articles, French shows an alarming lack of understanding of the theological underpinnings of anti-Semitism when he writes, “No reasonable person can survey OPC theology (or the theology of its Reformed cousins) and think for one moment that it countenances white supremacy, anti-Semitism, or white nationalism.”

OPC theology may not “countenance” these positions overtly, but supersessionism and replacement theology do in fact make anti-Semitism not only possible, but acceptable. The reality is that these same beliefs have been the foundation of Christian Jew-hatred for almost two thousand years and are now used by some Christians to deny Israel the right to exist.

The belief that the Christian Church has superseded or replaced the Jewish people and Israel results in a conclusion that there is no purpose in the continued existence of the Jewish people or the Jewish State. This position often manifests as hatred of Jews, and the combination of belief and hatred has been the fuel for varying levels of persecution and violence towards Jews in every generation of Church history.

This same belief – that there is no purpose for the continued existence of the Jewish people – resulted in the complicity of the German Church as a whole in the annihilation of six million European Jews during the Holocaust. Indeed, the vast majority of German Christians believed the Jews deserved what the Nazis did to them. Their belief was rooted in four hundred years of German theology based on the teachings of Martin Luther.

In On the Jews and Their Lies, Luther expounded on how God had rejected the Jews and replaced them with the Church. In chapter 15, he offered his advice as to what should be done to the Jews – advice the Nazis followed and the Church condoned.

He wrote in part:

What shall we Christians do with this rejected and condemned people, the Jews...

First, to set fire to their synagogues or schools and to bury and cover with dirt whatever will not burn, so that no man will ever again see a stone or cinder of them...

Second, I advise that their houses also be razed and destroyed.

Third, I advise that all their prayer books and Talmudic writings...be taken from them...

Fourth, I advise that their rabbis be forbidden to teach henceforth on pain of loss of life and limb...

Fifth, I advise that safe-conduct on the highways be abolished completely for the Jews...

Sixth, I advise that usury be prohibited to them, and that all cash and treasure of silver and gold be taken from them and put aside for safekeeping...

It is clear from the writings of Martin Luther that belief in the rejection and replacement of the Jews by the Church (supersessionism) fuels a conviction on the part of some, that violence against Jewish people is justified.

To be fair, the Orthodox Presbyterian Church issued a statement condemning the shooting in the Poway synagogue. It reads:

The atrocious crime of violence and hatred that took place at Chabad of Poway synagogue on Saturday, April 27, grieves us deeply and shatters our hearts. As a congregation of the Lord Jesus Christ, we devote our lives to the love and mercy of the Lord to all of God’s beautiful children, from every nation, language, and tribe. Our most sincere prayers, condolences, and cares go out to the victims, their loved ones, and the congregation of Chabad. We deplore and resist all forms of anti-Semitism and racism. We are wounded to the core that such an evil could have gone out from our community. Such hatred has no place in any part of our beliefs or practices, for we seek to shape our whole lives according to the love and gospel of Jesus Christ.

Without doubting their sincerity when they state their resistance to all forms of anti-Semitism, it is naïve and irresponsible to ignore the historical evidence of how the same theology adhered to by the OPC has indeed inspired and fueled the very thing they claim to deplore and resist. This theology not only fuels anti-Semitism, but anti-Zionism as well, as both are based on the conviction that Jews have no right to exist as a people with the same rights as other human beings.

According to their website, the position of the OPC concerning Israel is as follows:

We believe Old Testament Israel was the Church before Christ came. Paragraph 4 [of the Westminster Confession of Faith] adds, "To them also, as a body politic, He gave sundry judicial laws, which expired together with the state of that people, not obliging any other now, further than the general equity thereof may require."

In other words, the nation of Israel, as it existed as the people of God in the Old Testament is no more. Galatians 6:16 informs us that the Church is now the Israel of God. In the Old Testament the church, called the nation of Israel, consisted of the blood descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. But in the New Testament the Church now consists of all those who believe God's promise like and along with Abraham (See Romans 4:1-12 and Galatians 3:13-14). We who trust in Christ are now the nation of Israel!

Therefore the Orthodox Presbyterian Church holds that the political/geographical entity known as Israel is not significant in and of itself. We pray for the blood descendants of Abraham, the Jews, that they might also believe in Jesus (see Romans 9-10). But our position would be that the present day nation of Israel is no more significant than any other nation, and yet ought to hold a significant place in the work of the Church in making disciples of every nation.

In their own words, “the Orthodox Presbyterian Church holds that the political/geographical entity known as Israel is not significant in and of itself.” This position is the logical conclusion of their belief that “the Church is now the Israel of God” and “the people of God in the Old Testament is no more.”

If “the people of God in the Old Testament” no longer exist, then it does not matter what happens to those who, generation after generation, continue to identify as Jews. Accordingly, replacement theology/supersessionism has been used by the Church throughout most of its history to inspire, justify, and even encourage persecution and violence against the Jewish people.

Consequently, it is erroneous to claim that the OPC’s supersessionist position concerning the Jewish people and the State of Israel has no possible relationship to the avowed anti-Semitism of the Poway synagogue shooter. In fact, almost two thousand years of Church history loudly contradicts French’s belief that: “...any church’s adherence to so-called ‘replacement theology’ does not imply that anti-Semitism is any way acceptable.”

Replacement theology/supersessionism and the lack of regard for Israel absolutely do feed anti-Semitism, and they absolutely do provide a justification for anti-Semitism. An honest study of church history reveals how this theology was used to justify everything that has been done to Jews, including persecutions, pograms, expulsions, and German Christian support for the Holocaust.

Indeed, history and current events demonstrate that supersessionism/replacement theology has, does, and will continue to justify anti-Semitism and violence against the Jewish people as long as Christians ignore Church history and what the Bible has to say about a future for the Jewish people.


Tricia Miller is a Senior Research Analyst at CAMERA. She monitors Christian organizations and media activity related to the Arab-Israeli conflict


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